Reading: There are hundreds of books being published every year on the topic of Buddhism and meditation. This list represents both new and classic books that are faithful to the Buddha’s teaching as taught in the Pali cannon.
This list is by no means exhaustive and is intended only as a starting point.
 
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Foundations
Eight Mindful Steps to Happiness
Venerable Henepola Gunaratana
Wisdom Publications, 2001.
A clear and practical explanation of the Buddha’s doctrine of the Noble Eightfold Path.  Plenty of examples for every day life.
In the Buddha’s Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon
Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi, Translator
Grouped by theme, this collection of scriptures covers the breadth and depth of the Buddha’s teaching.  Introductions to each chapter are written by Bhikkhu Bodhi and provide guidance for those just beginning to work with the scriptures. Wisdom Publications (Boston), 2005, ISBN: 0861714911
Mindfulness in Plain English
Venerable Henepola Gunaratana
A step-by-step guide to Buddhist meditation that is practical and direct. You will refer to this book again and again in your first two or three years of meditation. Wisdom Publications, Boston. 1993, 2002.
Mindfulness with Breathing: A Manual for Serious Beginners
Ajahn Budhhadhasa Bhikkhu
Lays out the practice of anapasati meditation, literally mindfulness of the in and out breath.
Pure and Simple: The Extraordinary Teachings of a Thai Buddhist Laywoman
Upasika Kee
This is a large collection of Upasika Kee Nanayon’s teachings recently published by Wisdom Publications.
The Buddha
Michael Carrithers
What the Buddha Taught
Venerable Walpola Rahula
A lucid and faithful account of the Buddha’s teachings that includes a number of the basic texts.
When the Iron Eagle Flies: Buddhism for the West
Ayya Khema
Ayya Khema was born in Germany in 1923 and ordained as a nun in Sri Lanka.  This book gives an introduction to both meditation and fundamental Buddhist teachings.
Further Study
Being Dharma: The Essence of the Buddha’s Teachings
Venerable Ajahn Chah
Ajahn Chah is the founder of the Western Forest Sangha tradition started at his monastery in Thailand Wat Pa Nanachat.
Lovingkindness
Sharon Salzberg
Shambhala Publications.
A central meditation subject crucial to the balanced development of the path.
The Four Foundations of Mindfulness
Venerable U Silananda
Wisdom Publications, Boston, 1990.
This is the basic text of and commentary on the meditative techniques which the Buddha described as the only way to peace and happiness. Written by a Theravada monk with 40 years of meditative experience. Explains in detail all the instructions of the Buddha on how to achieve mindfulness. Wisdom Publications, Boston, 1990.
The Heart of Buddhist Meditation
Venerable Nyanaponika Mahathera
Eric Fromm said that the work of this scholarly German born Theravada monk might become one of the most important contributions to the spiritual renewal of the West. Written in a simple and direct style, with deep humanity and extraordinary knowledge. Includes important texts and explanations of the basic techniques.
The Life of the Buddha: According to the Pali Canon
Venerable Bhikkhu Nanamoli
This book pieces together the chronological story of the Buddha’s life strictly from the standpoint of the Pali Cannon.  More recent translations of the text can be found individually, but this is the most comprehensive anthology of those relating to the Buddha’s path to enlightenment and his long life teaching the Dhamma.
The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya
Translated by Venerable Bhikkhu Nyanamoli and Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi
Wisdom Publications, Boston/London, 1995.
The Suttas are the primary resource for a practitioner to refer to.  This collection contains 152 Suttas and an invaluable introduction by Bhikkhu Bodhi.  A wealth of footnotes makes the text very accessible to the interested reader.
The Way to Peace and Happiness
Compiled by Venerable Yogavacara Rahula
Provides translations of the key doctrines of the Buddha with Bhante Rahula’s own insightful comments.
Links
Here are some other websites that you may also find interesting.
Access to Insight
http://www.accesstoinsight.org This is probably the single largest collection of readings on Theravada Buddhism on the internet. It contains hundreds of scriptures and Dhamma books as well as an extensive links page to other sites.
Sadhu!
http://www.dhamma.ru/sadhu A directory of links related to Theravada Buddhism.
Audio Dharma
http://www.audiodharma.org A collection of audio recordings from Theravada/vipassana and Zen tradition
Journal of Buddhist Ethics
jbe.gold.ac.uk Offers free download of the Sri Lankan version of Pali Canon and post-canonical writings (in Pali). Articles and book reviews are targeted to college students and their professors.
Insight Meditation Society and Barre Center for Buddhist Studies
dharma.org Offers meditation retreats and study workshops.
Buddhanet: www.buddhanet.net